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Catherine the Great

  • Catherine patronized the arts, sciences, and literature and helped shape Russian culture and society.
  • Catherine's Enlightenment ideology and Westernizing tendencies were essential to developing Russia's national spirit.
    • Catherine encouraged education and the arts, which led to the emergence of the Russian intelligentsia.
    • This intelligentsia played a significant role in shaping Russian culture and society, including advocating for the abolition of serfdom.
  • Catherine's Westernizing tendencies undermined Russia's unique cultural identity.
    • She supported French culture and spoke French fluently, which led to the importation of French culture and values into Russia.
    • Her policies often favored the nobility over the peasantry, which led to social inequality.

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