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Sources of Packet Delay

dnodald_\text{nodal} is the sum of:

  • dprocessingd_\text{processing} is the time checking for bit errors. Typically finishes in milliseconds.

  • dqueueing delayd_\text{queueing delay} is the time waiting in the memory if the router is busy transmitting something else.

  • dtransmission delay=packet sizebandwidthd_\text{transmission delay} = {\text{packet size} \over \text{bandwidth}}

  • dpropagation delay=cable lengthcd_\text{propagation delay} = {\text{cable length} \over c} is the physical constraint of propagation. cc is the speed of connection, usually the speed of light.

  • Propagation Delay