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Queueing in Internetworking and Congestions

Let the three variables:

  • bb is the bandwidth (bits/s)
  • ss is the size of a packet (bits)
  • aa is the arrival rate (count/sec)

Then we can know that:

  • s×as \times a is the traffic arrival rate (bits/s)
  • If sab<1{sa \over b} < 1, the bandwidth is much higher than the traffic. No problem.
  • If sab1{sa \over b} \approx 1, the bandwidth struggles to digest the traffic. Congestion begins.
  • If sab>1{sa \over b} > 1, more traffic comes than the bandwidth's capability. Congestion piles up.